I work at the boundaries of architecture and engineering disciplines, with a focus on the relationship of computation to creative design and evaluation. My current research interests lie in three primary areas:

1. Computing + Value Judgements, in Rule-based + Data-driven Frameworks   
2. History, Pedagogy + Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Design, Art + Culture
3. Formal Foundations in Architecture + Engineering Design

Please explore the sections below to learn more about my work, and get in touch if you would like to know more or are interested in collaborating.

Rule-Based vs Data-Driven Paradigms

Projects that examine the relationship of rule-based design modeled by the shape grammar formalism and data-driven paradigms originating from machine learning research. The focus areas are algorithmic spatial design and language-enabled CAD, discriminative and generative modeling, small-size computational learning.

'Creation' + 'Evaluation' Systems:
s – Present

A historical-critical project mapping and interrelating generative and evaluative frameworks from the 1700s to today. Aims to broaden the scope of computational thinking about 'creation' and 'evaluation' systems, synthesizing sources from architecture, art, design, literature, music, artificial intelligence, philosophy, and computer science.

Formal Foundations

A foundations project for working with "high-level" structural mathematics (topology) in architecture and engineering design disciplines. Aims to bridge spatial intuition and abstract reasoning about shape, parts and relations, for both existing and imagined designed objects and spaces.

Architecture + Design Work

Individual and collaborative projects in architecture, design, and new media that I have worked on in parallel to my academic research. Most projects were finished while I was affiliated with the Department of Architecture at AUTh and the Department of Architecture at MIT.

Selected Publications

2023 "Formulations of the Generative in Design, Science and Technology," Leonardo (The MIT Press). [Forthcoming]

2023 "Arrangements containing shapes: mathematical features and their use in visual calculating." In Shape Computation: Fifty Years 1972-2022 (Springer Nature). Also in Mathematics and the Built Environment book series. [In Print]

2022 with George Stiny "Analysis of shape grammars: continuity of rules," Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science 49: 1929—1948. Access Preprint.
2022 with MF Arslan, PL Rosin, S Tari, et al. "SHREC'21: Quantifying shape complexity," Computers & Graphics 102: 144—153. Access Preprint, Shape Datasets
2020 "Structure from appearance: topology with shapes, without points," Journal of Mathematics and the Arts 14: 199—238. Access Preprint.
2019 "The topology of shapes made with points," Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science 47: 1279—1288. Access Preprint.


[New Course]
ES138 Computing, Spatial Design, and Human Values
Harvard College/Graduate School of Arts and Sciences [Canvas page]
Term: Spring 2024

Role: Course developer and instructor.
Description: The course focuses on major computational viewpoints of spatial design, in a series of modules that cover topics such as seeing and pattern recognition, visual calculating and rule-based generative design, models of problem-solving, design knowledge and models of learning. Integrates methods and evaluative frameworks from design theory, art, mathematics, architecture, aesthetics, linguistics, computer science, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence to foster a critical (evaluative) mindset on computing concepts relevant for thinking about and doing design. Builds a broad basis on past and present research and scholarship in design and computation.

Previous Roles

As course instructor:

As graduate teaching assistant:

MIT Department of Architecture (Course 4):

  • 4.581/4.582 Proseminar/Research Seminar in Computation – 2017-2021
  • 4.540/4.541 Introduction to Shape Grammars I & II – 2018-2020 [MIT OCW]
  • 4.024 Architecture Design Studio, Level II – Spring 2020
  • 4.s56 Special Subject: Architectural Computation – Spring 2020
  • 4.154 Architecture Design Option Studio – Fall 2014

MIT Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Course 6):

  • 6.034/6.844 Artificial Intelligence – Fall 2016, 2018 [Course Wiki]

Collaboration / Prospective Students

I am available for collaboration on research projects, theses projects supervision, media arts projects and exhibitions, and industry collaborations. 

If you are a student already at Harvard, please reach out either using my email address or this link to book office hours with me. Specify the reason for our meeting in the subject line and include a brief description of your background.

[More content coming soon...]